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Lo microfundado: Un contraste entre las teorías de Robert Lucas y Jens Beckert

Lucía Giambroni, Iván Weigandi

Resumen


En 1976, el economista Robert E. Lucas argumenta que la síntesis neoclásica-keynesiana incurre en un error al no considerar que las reacciones de los agentes se modifican ante cambios en la política económica; por ello, propone poner el foco en los “parámetros profundos” que implican las preferencias individuales. La crítica de Lucas ha sido la base de los modelos macroeconómicos dominantes, microfundados a partir de agentes maximizadores que parten de expectativas racionales. Ahora bien, dadas las limitaciones que ha demostrado este enfoque, en especial a la hora de abordar de manera satisfactoria las motivaciones que suscitan la acción, resulta pertinente incorporar y contraponer el análisis de Jens Beckert, en tanto representa un cambio de perspectiva radical frente al abordaje dominante. Si, de acuerdo al autor, lo que motiva la acción económica es la intención “razonable” de obtener el mejor resultado, materializada a través de decisiones tomadas en base a “expectativas ficticias”, la posibilidad del cálculo -fundante en el modelo neoclásico- desaparece. En un contexto de incertezas, no hay cálculo racional posible. Esto permite resignificar el abordaje micro fundado, alejado del resultado determinista al que lo ha reducido el individualismo metodológico.

Palabras clave


Análisis Microfundado; Robert Lucas; Jens Beckert; Expectativas Ficcionales; Sociología Económica; modelo de acción racional

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